21+ Mustard Plant Care, Grow, Planting, and Harvesting Tips

Mustard Sauce is one of the most popular spices made out of seeds and used for salad dressing, and other authentic dishes, worldwide.

Today we are going to discover about this yummy yet healthy Mustard Plant. From its origin to Mustard Plant Care and Planting instructions in detail and other benefits.

Start Mustard Plant Care once they are sprouted after sowing seeds. Watering and using good quality soil can make plants healthy growth. Also keep a watch if you see slow growth for mustards, as there might be deficiencies in calcium, & nitrogen at the initial growing phase. If you are growing mustards indoors then you do not need a lot of sunlight, you can use artificial sunlight like LED’s for the growth. For the later growing phases you can use organic green leaf pest control.

If you want to grow these amazing mustard greens into your garden, stay tuned. We are going to cover everything from Mustard Plant Care, Grow, Planting, And Harvesting Tips and many more things like the below points in detail.

  • Planting Mustard seeds
  • Mustard plant uses
  • Mustard plant size
  • Mustard plant leaves
  • Mustard plant scientific name
  • Mustard seed plant or tree
  • Mustard plant scientific name
  • How to plant mustard greens
  • Which part of the mustard plant can be used as a food
  • Mustard plant representative species
Contents show

Mustard | Definition, Types, & Facts 

Let’s explore first about mustard seed plant origin, definition and some mustard plant facts.

Where Does Mustard Come From?

The mustard plant, an herbaceous plant belonging to the cabbage family, is known to originate from Europe, Asia, the Mediterranean region, and the Himalayas.

Mustard Plant Care
Mustard plant image

Cultivation of the mustard plants began in 3.000 years BC in India. There are more than 40 types of mustards as per the mustard greens wiki.

Types of mustardsWhite, black, and brown varieties of the mustard plant are the most commonly used ones in our lives. We will discuss some varieties in detail later.

Some Interesting Facts About Mustard:

  • Mustard is one of the world’s oldest spices and condiments
  •  In India and Denmark, it is believed that spreading its seeds on the perimeter of homes keeps away the evil spirits
  • The USA rates highest in mustard consumption in the world
  • The National Mustard Day and the mustard festival, are both widely celebrated on the first Saturday of August every year
  •  The name has its origin in Latin words ‘mustum ardens’, meaning ‘burning wines’, and named so because of the unique flavor of the crushed seeds mixed with wine grapes.
  • The Mount Horeb Mustard Museum in Wisconsin is entirely about to the mustard-plant and has a collection of 5,000 jars of mustard, brought from over 60 countries and 50 states.
  • Mustard is known for its historic medicinal benefits as the Greeks used its paste to cure toothache, boost appetite, and improve blood circulation.
  • It is estimated that more than 700 million pounds of mustard are consumed worldwide every year.

Mustard Plant Scientific Name And Description

Mustard is the common name for a group of herbaceous plants in the genera Brassica and Sinapis of the Brassicaceae (mustard scientific name )family, particularly known are Sinapis hirta or Sinapis alba (white mustard seed plant or yellow mustard seed plant).

Brassica juncea (brown or Indian mustard-plant), and Brassica nigra (black mustard seed plant), all three of which produce small mustard seeds that are widely used as spices.

And, grinding and mixing them with water, vinegar, or other such liquids, can be turned into a condiment also known as mustard

Planting Instructions For Mustard From seeds?

Mustard seeds for planting are not rocket science, but if you are planning to pant mustard into our garden. The below instructions will definitely help you.

1 Selection Of Site

Fields Mustard should land that receives full sun or partial shade. They should be planted in properly drained soil preferably rich in organic matter. Before planting, it is advised to add aged compost to the planting beds. Mustard generally prefers a soil pH content of 5.5 to 6.8.

2 Planting Time

Mustard should be sown as early as 4 to 6 weeks before the average last frost date in spring when the temperature average goes above 75°F. The succession of the mustard cover crop should be sown every 4 to 6 weeks.

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They need four to five weeks to be ready for harvest. The best time for sowing mustard is in autumn in winter zones. However, seeds may germinate slowly if the soil is too cool (40°F or less). Field Mustard grown in hot weather will bolt and go to seed.

3 Planting and Spacing

Planting mustard seeds around half-inch deep. When seedlings grow sufficiently, then thin them from 6 to 8 inches and space rows up to at least 12 inches.

4 Container Growing

How is mustard grown inside a container? – Simply spread seeds on top of the soil and cover it gently with another layer. The thinnings you get are edible.

What are the mustard seed growth stages?

Below are the 8 growth stages or the cycle for mustard seed.

  1. Seed Germination
  2. Leaf Development
  3. Stem Elongation
  4. Inflorescence emergence
  5. Flowering
  6. Fruit development
  7. Ripening
  8. Senescence

top 7 Mustard Plant Care Instructions Step by step

In the above section, we have explored, best ways to plant mustard into your garden. As now you have planted this well, let’s move on to the next and the most important step is to care mustard plant. Follow the below instructions.

Mustard Plant Care

Mustard Plant Care

1 Water and Feeding

How does mustard grow rapidly? –If the soil is kept evenly moist, their leaves grow quickly. Do not let the soil dry out and side-dress plants with aged compost around midseason.

2 Mustard Seed Plant Care

Remove the weeds regularly. Immediately pull mustard from the fields as it goes to seed. This will help to avoid prolific self-seeding.

3 Harvesting Instructions

Either pick mustard grass leaves one by one when they are young or you can cut the plant altogether. Finish harvesting before the hot weather because it will make leaves too hard and strong flavoured. This is the best mustard harvesting time to get more and preserve mustard.

4 Storage and Preservation

Mustard can be easily refrigerated for up to 3 weeks as frozen or dried. Even sprouting mustard seeds can be used.

5 Pest Problem With Mustard

Aphids and other such insects are attracted to Mustard-plants. Blast them off with a water nozzle.

6 Diseases Associated with Mustard

Mustard is cannot tolerate white rust. Inspect thoroughly and get rid of leaves that have white rust. To avoid moisture off the leaves, water the plants at the base of the stem.

7 When To Plant Mustard Seeds

Planting mustard seeds are best when done in the spring season because lengthening days trigger mustard plants to produce more mustard plant flower quickly.

What Are The Mustard Seed Plant Uses and benefits

Common folks prefer mustard plant uses as a condiment. The mustard seeds are crushed and a thick paste is made for using it easily in preparing culinary items.


Either powdered seeds can be used or a mix with water/vinegar can be used for the preparation of mayonnaise and vinaigrette, these serve as an important ingredient.

All three species of mustard plants are extensively used in the edible oil industry. This plant is also used to extract a good standard of protein and post-extraction, the residue is mixed in water to use as fodder for farm animals.

Medicinal Applications

The leaves of the mustard plants, also known as mustard greens, are consumed as meals. Additionally, they have medicinal applications too, including treatment for the common cold and effective applications in mustard plasters and traditional treatments for chilblains.

Recent studies in varieties of mustards show that they have high oil content for use in the production of biodiesel. This biodiesel supposedly has good cold flow properties and cetane ratings. Even the residual after pressing out the oil can be used to make an effective pesticide.

What Do You Do With A Mustard Plant?

  • Flowers from mustard-plants can be prepared into servings of mixed greens for some peppery style or utilized dry instead of expensive saffron.
  • The seeds from mustard can be dried and afterward ground into a powder and utilized as a spicy flavor.
  • When used whole, the seeds give a kick to pickles and relishes.

Can You Eat Mustard Plant Leaves?

Mustard greens can be eaten whole or cooked–steamed, sautéed, or stewed. Mustard Plant Leaves are like other greens (spinach, leafy veggies). Both the leaves and stalks of mustard greens can be eaten.

Why Mustard Oil Has Banned In The US?

Mustard oil is prohibited for eatable utilization in the EU, USA and Canada, primarily because of its erucic corrosive substance. The USFDA requires all mustard oil to be named “For External Use Only“.

Dr Manchanda states erucic corrosive was discovered to be destructive to rodents in high dosages yet had no unsafe impact on individuals

The Benefits Of Growing Mustard

  1. Mustard seeds contain selenium which helps the body in fighting cancer cells by slowing down their rate of development as well as act as an antioxidant.
  2. Mustard seeds are a major source of relief for people with rheumatic arthritis because of the selenium and magnesium.
  3. The frequency of migraine headaches also reduces due to the presence of magnesium in the mustard seeds.
  4. Mustard helps relieve any congestion problems in respiration as well as avoids nightshades. Being a good source of dietary fibers, they help in digestion and improve the overall metabolism of the body.
  5. Several nutrients like copper, iron, magnesium, and selenium are present in mustard seeds which assist in the prevention of asthma attacks, treatment of blood pressure, and menopause relief.
  6. Mustard greens leaves are an excellent source of vitamin-C which is a powerful natural antioxidant that provides resistance against flu-like viral infections.
  7. The mustard herb is also an excellent source of vitamin-K which plays a vital role in bone mass building function. It also has proved to help treat Alzheimer’s disease by limiting neuronal damage.

Is Mustard Seed Plant Or Tree?

According to the mustard tree Wikipedia, there is some controversy as the parable of the mustard tree is repeated twice in the Christian Bible gospels and mentioned in some stories of the Buddhist religion and Indian culture as well.

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What does a mustard tree look like? Well, black mustard (Brassica Nigra) is NOT technically a tree, though it grows large enough to be tree-like with tiny seeds that attract the birds.

The Bible indicates that birds nest in the mustard tree, which doesn’t happen in black mustard plants. But some birds do land on the plant and eat the seeds.

Despite the controversy, black mustard is still considered by most as the mustard tree of the Bible. Thus it is technically a plant.

What Does A Mustard Plant Look Like when growing ?

The answer to what does a mustard seed plant look like can be found in a home garden where mustard-plants usually have large, leafy greens and yellow mustard flower grown in clusters ranging from two to 12 flowers. A mustard plant can be identified by the below things.

  • Development Habit: 1-2 feet high, spread and erect.
  • Leaves: Alternate, 2-7 inches in length.

Lower leaves have petioles and are sporadically lobed and toothed with bristly hairs; upper leaves are more modest and may not be lobed; petioles lacking or short. Stem: Branched close to top, bristly.

The leaves will be broad and flat veined and can even be toothed and lobed. If you look at a mustard-plant image, it’s commonly dark green, but mustard seed plant leaves can also have purple streaks and might appear curly or smooth.

Are you still wondering what does mustard look like? One of the best ways to identify the plant is through the mustard yellow flower.

Regardless of the color, a flower with four petals and six stamens can be easily identified as a mustard flower.

The six stamens seem like H-shape with four long stamens and two short stamens. There is also a pistil visible as upright in the middle part of the flower.

Mustard Plant Varieties And Types

There are many types and varieties of best mustard plants. Let’s explore each of them in detail. It’s available in different colors like Black, red mustard, white.

1 Wild Mustard-Plant

What do wild mustard plants look like? Okay, let’s start with wild mustard-plant identification. The wild mustard plant (Sinapis arvensis) is annual with 1-2 feet in height.

  • Wild mustard leaves are up to 7 inches in size. Lower leaves contain petioles unevenly toothed while upper leaves are smaller in size and may not be toothed.
  • Wild mustard flower springs from June – October. They are about half-inch, golden yellow with four-petals grown in small groups. The mustard tree fruit is slender, slightly curved, smooth seedpod around 1 inch long, and usually borne by upper branches.
  • Having a strong resistance to frost and drought, wild mustard grows rapidly and can be found in almost any kind of soil. Wild mustard green seedlings is same as normal mustard as well as edible as some of them are quite tasty.
  • They can be used as an herb to spice up oils and vinegar and mustard flowers can be used to add flavor in many. Wild Mustard helps in increasing blood flow and limiting swelling and pain. It also aids in case of headaches.

2 Garlic Mustard Plant

  • Garlic mustard plant bush, though a noxious weed, is a biennial or winter annual herb that usually grows 2-3 (sometimes up to 6) feet of height. Their lower hairless leaves are shaped like kidneys.
  • The Garlic mustard plant root has a distinctly observable S or L form right below the base of the stem. During the spring season, mustard roots and new leaves develop an aroma similar to garlic.
  • This Garlic mustard plant shrub/weed spreads rapidly displacing native plants as they can self-pollinate. Because this plant is so difficult to eradicate later.
  • Mustard seed farming -Farmers usually monitor sites regularly to remove these plants at the earliest stage before sowing other desired plants.  Some use herbicides for large, dense infestations to avoid harm to the native and other desirable plants.

3 Black Mustard Seeds Plant

  • Black mustard seeds (Brassica nigra), is commonly used as a spice. As per the mustard seed plant description, it is an annual plant and an upright erect plant with large stalked leaves that are covered with hairs at the base while smoother on the stem.
  • Mustard seed plant size reaches 80–90 cm and when left to grow freely in moist fertile soil, even up to 8 feet. In the mustard seed plant picture, bright yellow mustard flowers can be observed growing mustard seed in small clusters on thin stems at the end of the main branches.
  • The spice from them is made by removing the mustard seed plant coats. They are flavorful, with almost no aroma, and commonly used in Indian cuisine.

4 Yellow Mustard Plant

In yellow mustard seed plant images, it appears to be a yellow mustard seed coat and is primarily grown for the North American condiment industry. It is used to produce traditional condiments, mayonnaise, and certain salad dressings. The seed of the yellow mustardPlant is used as a binding agent and also to enhance protein in cooked meats.

5 Mustard Greens Plant

Mustard greens plants are rapidly growing nutritious leafy greens. Well if you are thinking about where do mustard greens plant come from, they can be perfectly grown in mustard seed gardens and containers in both spring and fall.

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The leafy plants are easy to care for and work well with fall flowers such as pansies. Mustard seed plant height can be up to about a foot and a half in a rosette of leaves.

If you want you can simmer the big peppery greens or you can pick smaller, young leaves to eat raw in salads and sandwiches.

How do you growing mustard greens indoors?

Growing Mustard greens indoors are the best way to integrate healthy greens into your diet. This is the easiest grain to grow indoors as it doesn’t require a lot of sunlight.

  1. You can start the planting process by selecting good quality mustard seeds.
  2. Once this is selected try to use a wide indoor pot for seeding. As you know a wide, square shape pot will work better as it will have more space.
  3. While planting seeds remember to sow seeds about an inch apart. Along with that add good quality rich soil to provide sufficient nutrients to the green.
  4. Once sprouted, follow all the above caring mustard instructions.

Other Common Uses And Benefits Of Mustard

  • Removes odor – If your jars smell like the spices or ingredients you store in them, use mustard Seed plant paste in the jar with water and shake it well to get rid of the odor.
  • Relieves Muscle Pains– Just soak yourself in a tub of warm water and add some mustard seeds powder to relieve pain.
  • Treats FeverMustard seeds induce heavy sweating thereby lowering fever. It also helps release toxins from the body and comforts in the flu and cold as well.

What Are Representative Species Of Mustard Plant?

Brassicaceae (mustard-plant scientific name) contains around 338 genera and more than 3,700 species of mustard greens flowering throughout the world.

The mustard seed plant family can be identified as having four petals with cross-shaped flowers. They generally contain two long and two short stamens and produce pod-shaped fruits.

The brassica mustard family comes under weed species and have a short lifecycle. Is mustard a vegetable? Yes, it is a cruciferous vegetable. Also, from a mustard species.

Brassica oleracea, have come 6 of the common vegetables we grow – cabbage, cauliflower, kohlrabi, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, and kale.

Ornamentals plants that include sweet alyssum and stock, and rapeseed (source of canola oil) are also a part of this family. Also, unwanted mustard seed weeds such as wild radish and sea rockets are in this family.

Find below the most Frequently Asked Questions on Mustard Plant Care

Q: Which part of the mustard plant  can be used as a food

Mustard seed is utilized as a spice in general. Pounding and blending the seeds in with water, vinegar, or different fluids makes the yellow sauce known as a mustard sauce. The seeds can likewise be squeezed to make mustard oil, and the consumable leaves can be eaten as mustard greens.

Q: Is Mustard Seed Plant Leaves Eatable?

Mustard greens can be eaten crude or cooked–steamed, sauteed, or stewed. Plan mustard greens like you would be growing mustard spinach, yet anticipate a more grounded flavour.
Indeed, even cooked mustard greens will have a “bitter taste“. Both the leaves and stalks of mustard greens can be eaten.

Q: How long do mustard seed plants live?

The yellow mustard plant can live up to 80 to 85 days. Earthy colored mustard develops in 90 to 95 days. Since earthy colored and oriental mustard assortments break more effectively than yellow mustard, they ought to be reaped before the units are completely dry.

Q: How Tall Do Mustard Seed Plants Grow?

Mustard hedges arrive at a normally developed stature of somewhere in the range of 6 and 20 feet with a 20-foot spread.

Q: where does mustard grow?

Mustard usually grows in Canada and Nepal they are the world’s largest producers of mustard seed.

Q: What is the best climate to grow mustard?

Mustard will grow in cool weather, that is why it grows well in cooler reasons like Canada.

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